Trans-Mongolian Railway – The best things to do in Ulaanbaatar

by Gaetano
Welcome to Ulaanbaatar

Ulaanbaatar was the eighth stop of my Trans-Siberian and Trans-Mongolian journey from Moscow to Beijing. We are about 4600 km as the crow flies from Moscow, with over 6000 km of railway behind us.

Between Ulan-Ude (the last Russian city visited) and Ulaanbaatar, there are about 8 hours of travel, plus two stops (Russian side and Mongolian side) for the visas check.

As I explained here, since border checks are faster by bus (or so we read around), in Ulan-Ude, I got off the train and got on the bus. After about 2 hours, we were finally on our way to the Capital of Mongolia.

The road between the two cities, especially on the Mongolian side, is not the best one, and even the landscape tends to thin out more and more.

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park

Yurts are often seen in the distance. These are the tents of nomadic families (ger in the local language) with grazing animals all around.

Mongolia is, in fact, a Nation where many people live in tents. Every time they move, they tear the tent down and set them elsewhere up.

Ulaanbaatar in a nutshell

The following is an interactive map, and the red pins mark some of the main points of interest in Ulaanbaatar. The black pins mark the railway station, the Guide Hotel, where I stayed, the Department Store in the city center, where you can find a bit of everything, and a laundry. A laundry service is essential for such a long journey if you don’t want to bring loads of clothes with you.

The orange pins mark two restaurants, one of them is part of the Modern Nomads chain, very famous in Ulaanbaatar. In Mongolia, you eat mainly grilled meat, and here you will find a welcoming atmosphere, typical dishes, and a fast service.

Zoom out the map to see the national parks because they are located outside the city.


Whether if you arrive by train or by bus, both stations are not very central. Therefore you have to move by taxi to get to the city center, but fortunately, they are quite cheap.

Street Life - Mongolian traditional dresses

Street Life – Mongolian traditional dresses

The first impression of Ulaanbaatar will be the one that will accompany me throughout my stay here. Very kind, open, and helpful people, living in a city on which it is still necessary to work a lot in terms of public transports and city planning.

Traffic and smog are frightening, and there is definitely the need for an efficient and rail-based public transport service. But the thing that struck me most is that each corner of the city has a half-finished or abandoned skyscraper. For this reason, the architectural and landscape beauties of this place seem oppressed by concrete.

Street Life - Hawker

Street Life – Hawker

Sükhbaatar Square

It is the center of Ulaanbaatar and hosts the main attractions of the city. They are partially around the square itself, partly near it.

The statue of the Mongolian politician, revolutionary, and national hero Damdin Sükhbaatar, is located right in the center of the square.

Mongolian Parliament

The Mongolian Parliament, with the statue of Genghis Khan at the entrance, is probably the most famous building in the city.

Opera House

Opera House

Opera House

Among the other historic buildings that can be seen in or around the square, there are:

National Museum of Mongolian History

Financial Exchange Building

National Academic Drama Theater

Temple Museum

An ancient temple used today as a museum. Unfortunately, it was under renovation and therefore closed on my arrival, but this place is worth a visit.

The Blue Sky

The most famous skyscraper in Ulaanbaatar built in the shape of a sail.

The Blue Sky

The Blue Sky

Gandantegchinlen Monastery

This Buddhist monastery is located in a suburb west of the city, it hosts the giant statue of Avalokiteśvara, the Buddhist deity of compassion. Currently, this over 25 meters high statue is the biggest in a closed building.

Gandantegchinlen Monastery

Gandantegchinlen Monastery

Beatles Monument

Mentioned more out of curiosity than anything else. It is located in a somewhat central square with the State Department Store (a shopping center) as well as several clubs and shops around it.

Beatles Monument - Ulaanbaatar

Beatles Monument – Ulaanbaatar

Other buildings and places of interest

Here I mention some places or attractions that are located a little outside the city center.

Narantuul Market

A real bazaar with all Mongolian colors and flavors at once.

Winter Palace Museum of Bogd Khan

This museum now stands in the complex of buildings that were once the residence of the Mongolian Buddhist spiritual leader Bogd Kahn.

Golden Buddha Statue

Golden Buddha Statue

Golden Buddha Statue

Zaisan Memorial

Located south of Ulaanbaatar not far away from the Golden Buddha Statue, it is a monument to the Mongolians and Soviets who lost their lives during World War II.

Zaisan Memorial

Zaisan Memorial

Near the sculpture, there is a mural showing scenes of friendship between Russian and Mongolian people. Getting here means climbing a few hundred steps, but the panoramic view of Ulaanbaatar from above will be your reward.

Zaisan Memorial

Zaisan Memorial

National Parks

To reach the national parks around the Mongolian capital, you need an organized tour or take a rental car. Both things are relatively easy because these tours are offered almost everywhere in the city. Alternatively, you can ask your hotel.

Bogd Khan National Park

South of Ulaanbaatar lies the over 2000 meters high sacred mountain Bogd Khan. The whole surrounding area is part of the Bogd Khan National Park, whose main attraction is the Manzushir Monastery.

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park

This vast national park is probably one of the main attractions of Mongolia and is located about 40 km from Ulaanbaatar. The farthest part of the park is the uncontaminated area, but you need to stay a couple of days to visit it.

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park

The area closest to Ulaanbaatar is full of tourist camps instead. Visitors can stop here for lunch, dinner, or even stay overnight in a traditional yurt (Ger in local language).

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park - Yurt camp

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park – Yurt camp

You can also book here a horseback riding, different excursions, and experience how the local population lives.

Turtle Rock

This huge tortoise-shaped rock is one of the main attractions of the park.

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park - Turtle Rock

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park – Turtle Rock

Equestrian Statue of Genghis Khan

It is an impressive monument in memory of the great leader who unified the Mongolian tribes and founded the Mongol Empire. The statue is 30 meters high, and the total height of the monument, including the base, is 40 meters.

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park – Equestrian Statue of Genghis Khan

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park – Equestrian Statue of Genghis Khan

The monument is made of steel, and a staircase brings you to the crest of the horse.

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park – Equestrian Statue of Genghis Khan

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park – Equestrian Statue of Genghis Khan

The statue, opened in 2008, has a long ornamental staircase and is oriented towards the east, to the birthplace of Genghis Khan.

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park – Equestrian Statue of Genghis Khan

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park – Equestrian Statue of Genghis Khan

From the top of the statue, you can admire the park in all its size and beauty. The other equestrian sculptures around Genghis Khan represent Mongolian warriors placed there to protect their leader.

After a few days spent in Mongolia, it is time to continue the Trans-Mongolian journey towards Beijing. From Ulaanbaatar, there are only 2 trains per week to the Chinese capital (3 in high season). It’s Sunday morning, and our train is already at the station. Perfectly on time.

It will be a 24-hour journey through the Gobi desert to Jining (also known as Ulaan Chab).

In Jining, we will change the train because Datong is a short detour on the standard route to Beijing, which does not require a train change.

But we have come so close, how could we miss now the wonders of Datong?

Trans-Siberian and Trans-Mongolian Railway – All you need to know

Travel arrangementsGeneral Information
Departure stationMoscow
First stopNizhny Novgorod
Second stopKazan
Third stopYekaterinburg
Fourth StopNovosibirsk
Fifth stopKrasnoyarsk and Stolby Nature Sanctuary
Sixth stopLake Baikal
Seventh stopIrkutsk
Eighth stopUlan-Ude
Ninth stopUlaanbaatar
Tenth stopDatong
Arrival stationBeijing

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